U.S. Civil War
American Civil War (1861–1865) kuni warrana gudda Yunaayitid Isteetsi jiddutti godhame yoo ta'u, kunis kan ta'e immo * "Union" fi * Yunaayitid Isteetsi Kibbaa kudhan-tokko kan kopha ta'u mirgaa akka qaban kan iffaa godhaani maqqa Confederate States of America jedhamun kan ofii wammani, kan President Jefferson Davis kan geggefamanin jiddutti warrani geggefame. Unioniin kan geggefaman President Abraham Lincoln fi Republican Partyiin yoo ta'u, Partyiin kun babbalachu gabrumma akka gara United States hin senne morkaa, kana malle mirgaa kopha ba'us ni dhowee. Warranis bara 1861 Ebla 12 ka'e, kunis waan humni Confederate wataderotta (federal) United States kan tesso isaan Fort Sumter, South Carolina godhaan hatte bodda. South Carolinan state yeroo duraaf gargari of bastee dha.
Wagga tokkoffa irratti, Unioniin border states qabate, akkasumas waan gammi lachu warrana gudachu jalqabaniif Cuffama Union gochuu dandettera. Bara 1854 E.C. (1862 G.C.)t warrani guddan ka'e, kunis dhibba gudda fide ture, kunis kan ta'eef waan wal-madalu dhabu meshaa harra fi itti hadhisaa durii jiddu argamun kan ka'e dha. Fulbaana 1854 E.C. (September 1862 G.C.) kessatti, Lincoln Gochaa Labsa (Emancipation Proclamation) inni godhee irratti akka ibseetti sababi warrana kana akka gabrumma bilissa basu ta'e ibsee ture, haa ta'u malee kana kan godhee morkii Copperheads kabba kan kopha ba'u fi gabrumma fudhatan birra dabretti. Gochii Labsa kuni kessa hirmachu fi qarqarsa Britain fi France kibba fi yokan Confederaciif kennu dandettu hirdhiserra. Kana malee, yaddi kuni gurrachi (African-American) akka dallaga yadda kana kessatti hirmattu tasiserra, kibbi immo yadda kana ergaa ture bodaa kasani malee takka akkana tasisani hin bekani ture. border states fi War Democratsiin yadda kana akka Union fayyadu danda'u gamachuun fudhatan. Gara bahat, Confederate general kan ta'e Robert E. Lee bulchinsa Army of Northern Virginia fudhate, Army of the Potomac irratti injifano bayye godhe ture, garu generaliin isaa dansan Thomas Jonathan "Stonewall" Jackson bakka warrana Battle of Chancellorsville jedhamutti bara Ebla 1855 E.C. (May 1863 G.C.)t ajjefame. Warrani Lee kan kabba bakka warrana Battle of Gettysburg jedhamu kan Pennsylvania argamut Adooleessa 1855 E.C. (July 1863 G.C.)t gara dubba kibban hadhame, haa ta'u malee akkuma ta'u ta'e Lee'n gara Virginiat baqatte. Union Navyn qarqara bishaani New Orleans bara 1854 E.C. (1862 G.C.) qabate, akkasumas Ulysses S. Grant bakka Mississippi River jedhamu qabate, kanas kan godhe duraan bakka warranna Vicksburg, Mississippi jedhamu Adooleessa 1855 E.C. (July 1863 G.C.) qabachun, kunis akka humni Confederacy akka gargari ba'u godherra.
By 1864, long-term Union advantages in geography, manpower, industry, finance, political organization and transportation were overwhelming the Confederacy. Grant fought a number of bloody battles with Lee in Virginia in the summer of 1864. Lee's defensive tactics resulted in extremely high casualties for Grant's army, but Lee lost strategically overall as he could not replace his casualties and was forced to retreat into trenches around his capital, Richmond, Virginia. Meanwhile, William Tecumseh Sherman, the leader of the Union Military Division of the Mississippi, captured Atlanta, Georgia. Sherman's March to the Sea destroyed a hundred-mile-wide swath of Georgia. In 1865, the Confederacy collapsed after Lee surrendered to Grant at Appomattox Court House; all slaves in the Confederacy were freed by the Emancipation Proclamation. Slaves in the border states and Union controlled parts of the South were freed by state action or by the Thirteenth Amendment.
The full restoration of the Union was the work of a highly contentious postwar era known as Reconstruction. The war produced about 970,000 casualties (3% of the population), including approximately 620,000 soldier deaths—two-thirds by disease. The war accounted for more casualties than all other U.S. wars combined. The causes of the war, the reasons for its outcome, and even the name of the war itself are subjects of lingering controversy even today. The main results of the war were the restoration and strengthening of the Union (mainly by permanently ending the issue of secession), and the end of slavery in the United States.
- James McPherson, Battle Cry of Freedom, page xix (from the introduction by C. Vann Woodward as of 1988)